Introduction: Laryngospasm is a life-threatening complication during the perioperative period with various causes and severe consequences. Pathophysiology: Laryngospasm is a complex physiological response involving the upper airway and the body’s reflex mechanisms. It occurs when the vocal cords in the larynx suddenly close, obstructing the flow of air into the trachea and lungs. This reflexive … Read more

Upper Airway Obstruction During Anesthesia

Introduction: Upper airway obstruction during anesthesia is a critical concern in the field of medicine. It can result from a complex interplay of anatomical factors, neuromuscular characteristics, and the influence of anesthetic agents. Understanding the sites of obstruction, predisposing factors, and the impact of different anesthetic drugs on upper airway obstruction is vital to ensure … Read more

Pediatric Regional Anesthesia: Anatomical and Physiological Considerations

Introduction: Regional anesthesia techniques, such as spinal and epidural blocks, are frequently employed in pediatric patients for a wide range of surgical and medical procedures. It is crucial for healthcare providers to recognize the anatomical and physiological distinctions in the pediatric population in comparison to adults, as these disparities significantly impact the administration and effects … Read more

The Anatomy of the Larynx: A Comprehensive Guide for Anesthesiologists

Introduction The larynx is a vital structure that plays a crucial role in airway management. Anesthesiologists must have a comprehensive understanding of its anatomy to ensure safe and effective airway securing. This article provides an in-depth overview of the various anatomical components of the larynx and explains their significance in airway management. Table of Contents … Read more

Risk Assessment Systems in Anesthesia: NARCO-SS, ASA-PS, and JHSRCS

Risk assessment plays a vital role in healthcare to ensure patient safety and tailor medical care to individual needs. Several risk assessment systems have been developed, each with its own scoring system, to categorize patients’ preoperative and intraoperative risks. In this article, we will explore three such systems: NARCO-SS, ASA-PS, and JHSRCS, along with their … Read more

Anesthesia for Diagnostic Muscle Biopsy

Introduction: Diagnostic muscle biopsy is a procedure performed to investigate myopathic and neurodegenerative diseases. The choice of anesthetic technique and agents must consider the patient’s specific risks and the type of muscle biopsy specimen. Here, we discuss the various considerations for anesthesia during muscle biopsy. Table 1: Types of Muscle Biopsy Specimens Type of Muscle … Read more

Pediatric Airway Management: Sizing Masks, Tubes, and Equipment for Safe and Effective Anesthesia

Introduction:Airway management in pediatric patients requires specialized considerations in equipment selection. This article explores the importance of appropriately sized masks, endotracheal tubes, various tubes, and oropharyngeal airways, as well as the factors contributing to the safe and effective administration of anesthesia in pediatric airway management. Masks for Pediatric Anesthetic Induction: The choice of masks for … Read more

Anesthesia Considerations for Children with Myopathy

Introduction: Children with myopathy, a group of muscle disorders, require specialized anesthesia care to ensure their safety during surgical and diagnostic procedures. This article delves into various aspects of anesthesia, including monitoring, choice of anesthetic agents, and specific considerations for managing myopathy-related risks. Monitoring During Anesthesia: Choice of Anesthetic Agents: Malignant Hyperthermia and Myopathy: Anesthesia-Induced … Read more

Evolution of Pediatric Anesthesia: A Historical Journey

Introduction: The Early Days of Anesthesia (1846-1900): Emergence of Pediatric Anesthesia Pioneers (Early 20th Century): Betty Lank and Robert Smith (1940s-1950s): Evolution of Anesthesia Equipment (20th Century): Understanding Pediatric Anesthesia Dosage (1950s-1970s): Advancements in Airway Management: Pioneering Pediatric Anesthesia Textbooks (1920s-1980s): Formation of Pediatric Anesthesia Societies: Conclusion:

Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB): Effects, Mechanisms, and Management

Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system (CNS) suppressant known for its euphoric and sedative effects. This article explores the background, mechanisms of action, clinical presentation, and management of GHB use and abuse. Background GHB is typically taken orally in various forms, including liquid, powder, tablets, or capsules, and its effects become apparent within … Read more