Introduction: History of RSI: RSI, or Rapid Sequence Intubation, is a technique developed to secure the airway quickly in situations where the risk of aspiration is high. The concept was introduced in the 1970s to address the potential for regurgitation and aspiration during intubation. RSI involves rapid administration of an induction agent followed by a … Read more


This document provides a detailed elaboration of the potential adverse effects of cannabis smoking in the context of anesthetic care for anesthesiologists. 1. Pulmonary Effects: Smoking synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) products or cannabis can lead to airway irritation and exacerbation of underlying respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia. Similar to … Read more


The management of chronic medications in the perioperative period involves several principles to ensure patient safety and optimal outcomes: Obtain a complete medication history and verify accuracy: All clinicians involved in patient care, including surgeons, anesthesiologists, and medical consultants, should review the patient’s medication history. This includes prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, herbal supplements, and substances … Read more

Perioperative neurocognitive disorder (PND)

Perioperative neurocognitive disorder (PND) is a comprehensive term utilized to encompass alterations in behavior, mood, and cognition that may arise following surgery and anesthesia. This definition is in accordance with the criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th edition (DSM-V) for neurocognitive disorder (NCD). PND encompasses several distinct conditions, namely preexisting cognitive impairment, … Read more


A general overview of the reported incidence rates of common complications of Nasotracheal Intubation: Epistaxis (Nasal Bleeding):¬†Epistaxis is a common complication of nasotracheal intubation due to the manipulation of delicate nasal tissues. The reported incidence varies widely, with studies indicating rates between 15% to 35%. The severity of bleeding can range from mild oozing to … Read more

Exploring the Evolution and Anatomy of Adductor Canal Block

As you delve into the realm of regional anesthesia techniques, it’s crucial to understand the nuances of advanced approaches, such as the adductor canal block (ACB). This technique has garnered increased interest due to its potential to preserve postoperative quadriceps strength while facilitating early mobilization after total knee replacement (TKR). Let’s embark on a journey … Read more

Unlocking Anesthesia Insights: Archimedes’ Principle in Action

Clinical Applications: Handling Air Bubbles: In medical settings, understanding Archimedes’ principle is crucial. For instance, if there’s an air bubble in a syringe, keeping the syringe’s cone pointed downward prevents injecting air into a patient. Open-Heart Surgery: During cardiac surgeries, de-airing is vital to prevent air bubbles from reaching the brain and causing issues. Anesthesiologists … Read more

Unraveling the Marvels of Propofol: A Fascinating Journey!

John B. Glen spent 13 years perfecting propofol; for his efforts, he was recently honoured with the 2018 Lasker Award for clinical research. Propofol, in a form solubilized in cremophor EL, was first identified as a drug candidate in 1973 and began clinical trials in 1977.Cremophor caused anaphylactic reactions, so this formulation was taken off … Read more

Discover the Fascinating Story of Anesthesia!

Background and Experiments with Nitrous Oxide: Thomas Beddoes established the Pneumatic Institution in Bristol, England, to explore the therapeutic use of various gases, including nitrous oxide, in treating pulmonary tuberculosis. Humphry Davy, a young chemist, was recruited to oversee the laboratory at the institution. He conducted experiments with nitrous oxide, exploring its effects on himself … Read more

Difficult Airway